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Classification Of Soils Based On Their Microbial Makeup

Soils are classified a number of different ways. (http://www.diorlashes.com/mink lashes vendor) Soil is very complex and we tend to simplify with classifications. Probably the most common classification is “sandy”, “clay”, “loamy”, etc. The classification helps one anticipate drainage, nutrient availability and needs, and amending plans. Sandy soils are usually low in nutrients and drain and dry out very quickly.

Clay soils are tight colloidal materials that have difficulty in draining, but contain lots of nutrients that are difficult for plants to access. Loamy soils drain well, keeping some moisture and have quite a bit of nutrients for plant growth. Another way soil is classified is by the pH. The measurement of acidity or alkalinity is called pH.

Soils tend to have various ranges in pH. The ideal pH for growing conditions is close to neutral, or close to 7. In this article we introduce another classification, this one by the microbial mink qingdao eyelashes. The importance of microbes is still not commonly known and is being studied at great length as people begin to realize the connections between microbes and soil structure, nutrient availability, and plant diseases.

During the 1960’s agricultural professionals around the world were studying microorganisms; their effects on plants and plant nutrients, their potential as pesticides, and their influence on soil structure. Most of this research involved using single strains of microorganisms with a single inoculation. Results were varied at best.

Most prophylactic applications as pesticides were short lived. It would appear that as the microbe was just about to control the growth of a certain pathogen, it would slow and not be able to fully overcome that pathogen. Many tests on plants were done to control fungal problems and/or deter insect pests. These varied results have lead scientists to seek out “stronger” strains of microbes or to genetically alter them to “make” them do what they wanted. The results still seem mixed, especially when taking a single strain, single inoculation approach.

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The most common research on microbial inoculants started with single strains of microbes such as Lactobacillus casei to see what the inoculants could do to control pathogenic fungi such as fusarium spp. Since most of this research was on food crops, research was done using microbes that were non-pathogenic, found in soils, and often microbes that were found in the human gut. Over the years, scientists began to look at combined microbial inoculants of multiple strains of lactic acid bacteria. Building on better results, they looked at combining microbes from different genus. In the 1970’s, a professor out of Okinawa, Japan, Dr. Teruo Higa, developed the idea of adding multiple applications of mixed strains of microbes to maintain high populations of beneficial microbes in the environment. By the early 1970’s he had worked with as many as 200 species of microbes in mixtures with multiple applications. By the early 1980’s he had narrowed the groups down to five groups and a mixture of as many as 80 species of microbes to achieve consistent results in the field.

Dr. Higa began to study soils, focusing on the microbial mink qingdao eyelashes of the soils. He found soils have a different dominance of microbes. That dominance of microbes correlated with a high incidence of disease or little or no disease. From these observations he developed a classification of soils based on their microbial makeup. The following soil classification was developed by Dr. Higa and is laid out in his book Agricultural Utilization of Microorganisms For Environmental Conservation. The book is still only available in Japanese. According to Dr. Higa, there are four types of soils: Disease-Inducing, Disease-Suppressive, Zymogenic, and Synthetic.

1. Disease-Inducing Soils

These soils tend to have a high percentage of fusarium. These soils have been poorly managed, tend to be compacted, drain poorly and support the growth of putrefactive microbes. Due to the high populations of putrefactive bacteria, they tend to put off foul odors such as ammonia from manures or high nitrogen fertilizers.

2. Disease-Suppressive Soils

These soils contain lots of microorganisms. Most of these microorganisms will be beneficial microorganisms including penicillium, trichoderma, and streptomyces genus. The texture is crumbly, where water can penetrate the soil easily. There is a low incidence of disease in plants grown in this soil, though yields are not optimal. Due to high populations of beneficial microorganisms, the soil does not have any foul odors.

3. Zymogenic Soils

These soils tend to be dominated with fermentative microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Pathogen populations are low. The soil structure is markedly improved in porosity. Insoluble nutrients become available to plants. Water penetration is even. Microbial metabolites such as amino acids, polysaccharides, vitamins, bacteriocins, plant hormones, etc., are present. The soil is becoming more aerobic, teaming with life and bio-available nutrients for plants. Crop yields will be higher on these fields than on disease suppressive soils.

4. Synthetic Soils

“Synthetic” microbes begin to dominate this soil. This does not mean a “fake” soil. It means a soil where things are synthesized or made. These microbes include algae, photosynthetic bacteria, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Pathogens such as fusarium are difficult to find in any significant numbers. Microbial metabolites are very high. Dr. Higa refers to this soil as being a “bacteria-cleansing type of soil.” (p18)

This classification makes it fairly easy to identify soil microbe mink qingdao eyelashes by odors and incidence of pests and disease without going through the expense of having a lab do a microbial analysis. If you want an accurate analysis, you could get a one done at a lab that specializes in microbial analysis, however that tends to be costly. When there are high populations of putrefactive microbes, there tends to be a high incidence of pests and disease. These soils tend to erode easily as there are little to no beneficial microbes improving the soil structure. These soils drain poorly and tend to be anaerobic (lacking air). These soils also tend to be the ones that are heavily cropped and treated with high levels of synthetic chemicals. The lack of crop rotation increases incidence of pest problems and the use of synthetic chemicals tends to kill the beneficial life in the soil. To transition from disease-inducing soils to synthetic soils, populations of beneficial microbes need to be encouraged through proper management techniques and repeated microbial inoculation. The goal is to make soils teaming with beneficial microbial life where there is less disease, healthier plants, better drainage, and less pest damage.

With the development of certain techniques beneficial microbial populations can be increased and maintained. Using irrigation systems, the addition of beneficial microbes can be delivered easily through the use of injectors or sprayers. Combine these techniques with other practices such as crop rotation, incorporation of organic matter, foliar feeding programs and low-impact fertilizers. Together these techniques support life in the soil. The metabolites of beneficial microbes help support plant growth and suppress the growth of pathogenic species of microbes. If the soils is in poor condition, it will take time, perhaps years, to mink qingdao eyelashes  the ultimate, synthetic soil.

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Article Source: znhair

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